С Є Тарасенко, І О Решетняк - Іноземна мова - страница 1

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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ, МОЛОДІ ТА СПОРТУ УКРАЇНИ

ХАРКІВСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ ЕКОНОМІЧНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ

Економічні тексти та практичні завдання з навчальної дисципліни

"ІНОЗЕМНА МОВА"

для студентів 3 - 4 курсів усіх напрямів підготовки заочної форми навчання

Харків. Вид. ХНЕУ, 2012

Затверджено на засіданні кафедри іноземних мов та перекладу. Протокол № 12 від 11.04.2011 р.

Укладачі: Тарасенко С. Є.

Решетняк І. О.

Е45 Економічні тексти та практичні завдання з навчальної дисципліни "Іноземна мова" для студентів 3 - 4 курсів усіх напрямів підготовки заочної форми навчання / укл. Тарасенко С. Є., Ре­шетняк І. О. - Х. : Вид. ХНЕУ, 2012. - 36 с. (Укр. мов., англ. мов.)

Наведено тексти і завдання, які дають можливість поліпшити рівень володіння англійською мовою та допоможуть студентам заочної форми навчання отримати додаткові знання з ділової англійської мови.

Рекомендовано для студентів усіх напрямів підготовки.

Вступ

У сучасних умовах, коли швидкими темпами розвиваються міжнародні економічні відносини, великого значення набуває вивчення іноземних мов, особливо усного мовлення.

Хоча в різних підручниках приділяється велика увага комунікативній направленості навчання, але у викладачів виникають певні труднощі в забезпеченні студентів заочної форми навчання необхідними матеріалами для активізації мовлення та кращого засвоєння матеріалу.

Наведені речові зразки та вправи сприятимуть усному закріпленню лексики та розвитку комунікативних компетентностей студентів заочної форми навчання.

Навчання іноземній мові у Харківському національному економіч­ному університеті носить як комунікативно-орієнтований, так і професій­но-направлений характер. Його завдання визначаються комунікативними і пізнавальними потребами фахівців відповідного профілю, а також мають за мету надати можливість набуття комунікативної компе­тентності, рівень якої на окремих етапах мовної підготовки дозволяє використовувати іноземну мову практично як у професійній діяльності, так і з метою самоосвіти.

Ця робота складається з 12 розділів. Кожний розділ має базовий текст та вправи лексико-граматичного характеру, які дозволяють закріпити активну лексику та деякі граматичні явища. У роботу включені оригінальні тексти, взяті з американських та англійських джерел. Основна мета роботи - надати студентам економічних напрямів підготовки заочної форми навчання матеріал для аудиторної та самостійної роботи.

Unit 1 Text

Most people work to earn a living, and produce goods and services. Goods are either agricultural (like maize and milk) or manufactured (like cars and paper). Services are such things as education, medicine and commerce. Some people provide goods; some provide services. Other people provide both goods and services. For example, in the same garage a man may buy a car or some service which helps him to maintain his car.

The work people do is called economic activity. All economic activities together make up the economic system of a town, a city, a country or the world. Such economic system is the sum-total of what people do and what they want. The work people undertake either provides what they need or the money with which they can buy essential commodities. Of course, most people hope to earn enough money to buy commodities and services which are non-essential but which provide some particular personal satisfaction, like toys for children, visits to the cinema and books.

Exercises Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.

1) Why do most people work? 2) What do they produce? 3) What kinds of goods are there? 4) What do schools, hospitals and shops provide?

5) What two different things can a man buy, for example, in a garage?

6) What do we call the work which people do? 7) What is an economic system the sum-total of? 8) What two things can work provide for a worker? 9) What can people buy with money? 10) What examples of essential and non-essential goods can you supply?

Ex. 2. Speak on the problems presented in the text using the outline.

1) The reason why most people work. 2) Two kinds of goods. 3) Spheres of services. 4) Definition of an economic activity. 5) Definition of an economic system. 6) The way people spend their money.

Ex. 3. Fill in the blanks with the missing words from the text so that the sentences make sense.

1) Transport systems like railways, buses and aero planes provide the public with important ... . 2) They told him to look at the ... and then do the exercises. 3) There is usually a lot of ... at any railway station or airport that handles a lot of traffic. 4) He decided to ... the work in order to make some money. 5) It was ... for him to go to the city as soon as possible. 6) They had ... money to buy most of the things they needed. 7) It was a ... matter and he did not wish to tell anyone else about it.

Ex. 4. Below there are 20 people doing different jobs. Ten of them produce goods; ten produce services. Make two lists.

Cattle-breeder, pilot, shoemaker, horse-breeder, builder, coal-miner, teacher, steelworker, shopkeeper, electrician, musician, nurse, cook, policeman, farmer, fruit-grower, fisherman, iron-ore miner, writer.

4

Ex. 5. Define the functions of the verbs "to be", "to have", "to do" and translate the sentences.

1) Schools are the centres of educational activity. 2) He does not want anyone else to do this work. He wants to do the work in person. 3) They are doing this work now. 4) This firm is to provide services for us. 5) He has to work hard to earn his living. 6) The garage has sold that car to him this month. 7) He bought the same goods as I did. 8) Do this work rapidly. 9) Perhaps the car does not belong to those people. 10) The work which most people do provides them with money. 11) It is his personal concern.

Unit 2

Text

The science of economics is based upon the facts of our everyday lives. Economists study our everyday lives and the general life of our communities in order to understand the whole economic system of which we are the part. They try to describe the facts of the economy in which we live, and to explain how it all works. The economist's methods should of course be strictly objective and scientific.

We need food, clothes and shelter. We probably would not go to work if we could satisfy these basic needs without working.' But even when we have satisfied such basic needs, we may still want other things. Our lives might be more enjoyable if we had such things as radios, books and toys for children. Human beings certainly have a wide and very complex range of wants. The science of economics is concerned with all our material needs: it is concerned with the desire to have a radio as well as the basic necessity of having enough food to eat.

Exercises Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.

1) What is economics based upon? 2) What two things do economists study? 3) What do they try to do? 4) What do they try to explain? 5) What should the methods of the economists be like? 6) What three essential things do we need? 7) What would happen if we could get these essentials without working? 8) What might make life more enjoyable? 9) What is economics concerned with?

Ex. 2. Make a short summary of the text using the key words:

to be based upon, to study, to describe, objective, scientific, to need, to satisfy, basic needs, range of wants, to be concerned with.

Ex. 3. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words:

economically, economical, economist, economy, economic, economics.

1) Marx and Keynes are two famous ...s. 2) Those people are studying the science of ... . 3) We sometimes call a person's work his ... activity. 4) People should be very ... with the money they earn. 5) The economic system of a country is usually called the national ... . 6) The people in that town live very ... .

Ex. 4. Define the functions of the verbs "to be", "to have", "to do" and translate the sentences into Russian.

1) Shops are places of commerce. 2) Goods are either produced on farms or in factories. 3) They are to provide these services in good time. 4) He had to buy a new car because he had crashed his old one. 5) What is he doing in his garage? He is repairing his car. 6) The work that we all do is called economic activity. 7) People have a wide range of wants. 8) He will have to study hard if he wants to be a good economist. 9) At present he have enough food to eat. 10) You don't work regularly. 11) His life is more enjoyable than mine. 12) He earns as much money as I do.

Ex. 5. Combine two sentences to form a conditional sentence.

Example: We have money. We can buy food. If we have money, we can buy food.

1) We have a radio. We can listen to the programmes. 2) We have food, shelter and clothes. We have the basic necessities of life. 3) You want to get new clothes. You must earn some money. 4) The economic system of a country is strong. The people will be able to satisfy their wants. 5) He wants to become an economist. He must study books on Economics.

Unit 3 Text

Not all economic systems are the same. The economic system of the USA differs greatly from the system of Russia. The American system is based on private enterprise with private ownership of the means of production, while the Russian system was based upon the principles of Karl Marx, the 19th century political economist. These economic ideologies contrast very strongly.

Britain is similar to the USA. It has an economic system based on private enterprise and private supplies of capital, which can be defined as surplus income available for investment in new business activities. Property in both the US and Britain can be owned by individual citizens and these citizens exercise considerable economic freedom of choice. They can choose what they want to do and how they want to earn their living, but are not of course entirely free to do as they wish. They must obey the law. Otherwise, however, they can use their time, money and effort as they wish.

Exercises Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.

1) Are all economic systems the same? 2) What is the American sys­tem based on? 3) What was the Russian system based on? 4) When did Karl Marx live? 5) What economic system is the British system similar to?

6) What two things is the British system based on? 7) Who can own property in the United States and Britain? 8) What must British and American citizens obey?

Ex. 2. Explain the following terms:

economic system, private enterprise, private ownership, means of production, income, economic freedom.

Ex. 3. Say what information you have received after reading the text.

Ex. 4. Here are two lists. The first list contains adjectives. The second list contains nouns and noun phrases. Arrange the words of each list so that the adjectives match the nouns:

1) capitalistic, economic, private, political, scientific, basic, complex, essential, personal;

2) satisfaction, necessities, enterprise, commodities, methods, American system, economist, ideologies, range.

Ex. 5. Analyze the verb-forms and translate the sentences into Russian.

1) The firm has bought a lot of commodities. 2) The lecturer is describing how the economic system works. 3) They are building a house. 4) They have been building the house for three months. 5) He hasn't earned much money this month.   6) We have had this radio-set for ten years.

7) They will do the work rapidly. 8) He will have supplied all the essential goods by the end of the month. 9) By the end of the month he had sold all the commodities. 10) You will make more money if you work regularly. 11) The

farmer undertook the work last week, and has just finished it. 12) The goods and services which people produce are very useful. 13) The goods which they wanted were essential minerals.

Ex. 6. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the correct forms.

1) If the people (to work) regularly and well, they will earn more money. 2) If the man buys his car at that garage, the garage-owner (to provide) some extra services. 3) If we (to buy) these commodities today, we will be able to sell them tomorrow. 4) If the farmers try to produce more, they (to have) some goods to sell as well as to use them themselves. 5) Life will be more enjoyable if we (to have) more spare time for our families.

Ex. 7. Complete the following passage using the appropriate passive forms of the verbs in brackets.

In 1993 a campaign (1)_(to launch) by the UK government to

reduce the amount of domestic waste. Households (2)_(to encourage)

to recycle certain waste products and to sort and prepare others for collection at specific sites. From there they will then (3)_(to collect) and

(4)_(to transport) to industrial waste treatment plants for recycling.

In Britain today, when the contents of the average domestic dustbin

(5)_(to analyse) we find that, in terms of weight, 35 % of the total

(6)_(to compose) of paper and cardboard, 22 % of kitchen waste,

12 % of plastics 10 % of glass 10 % of dust and ashes. 9 % (7)_(to

represent) by metals and the remaining 2 % by textiles.

There are only a few items of domestic waste that can't (8)_(to

recycle). One common example is disposable nappies which, as their name

suggests, have (9)_(to design) to (10)_(to throw away). However,

a lot of progress could (11)_(to make) especially towards reducing the

quantities of kitchen waste which can easily (12)_(to transform) into a

useful compost for use as a garden fertilizer.

Unit 4 Text

If a person can do what he wishes with his own property, time, and energy, then economists say that he is "economically free". In all communities, of course, limits are imposed upon the personal freedom of their citizens and these limits are in some cases very complex but in others relatively simple. All individuals are required to conform to the laws made by their governments.

Complete economic freedom of action can create great difficulties, because the freedoms exercised by various individuals often conflict. If citizens were completely free, some landowners might build factories in unsuitable places, while some factory-owners might make their employees work too long each day. If they were completely free, workers might stop working when they got their first pay, and come back only when they needed more money. Such economic anarchy could cause instability (unemployment; loss of production etc.) in the whole economy of a country.

Laws related to economic conditions are sometimes concerned with contracts between employers and employees. Sometimes they are concerned with workers' health, wages and pensions, and sometimes with the location of places of work. Sometimes they protect the interests principally of the workers, while at other times they may be beneficial towards the employers. The government policy towards both employees and employers will depend very much upon the political and economic ideology adopted by the government, and may be biased towards employers on the one hand, or workers and the problems of labour on the other hand.

Exercises Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.

1) Under what conditions is a person economically free? 2) What is the opposite of "simple"? 3) What are all citizens required to do? 4) Why does complete economic freedom of action cause great difficulties? 5) What three things might happen if citizens were completely free? 6) What kind of economy might complete economic freedom create? 7) What three workers' needs are sometimes the concern of the law? 8) Between whom are contracts arranged? 9) What else might the laws relate to, besides workers' needs and work contracts?

Ex 2. Explain the following terms:

personal freedom, factory owner, landowner, pay, unstable economy, wage, pension, employer, employee.

Ex. 3. State the main idea of each paragraph of the text. Ex. 4. Complete the sentences with tags.

Example: He owns a car, ... ? — He owns a car, doesn't he? 1) Some capitalists own factories, ... ? 2) That man earned his wages, ... ? 3) Those women grew fruit, ... ? 4) Mr. Smith will make clothes, ... ? 5)

Mr. Black will pack meat in that factory, ... ? 6) There is a system of control, ... ? 7) They have all the money they need, ... ? 8) They are completely free, ... ? 9) You regularly provide essential goods, ... ? 10) They increase

their productivity, ... ? 11) The government wants to improve the general conditions of work, ... ?

Ex. 5. Make these sentences passive, as in the example.

Example: Most people produce goods and services. - Goods and ser­vices are produced by most people. 1) Some people provide both goods and services. 2) Economists study the economic system. 3) That man owns the house. 4) They will provide shelter and clothes. 5) Economic changes affect our lives. 6) They will maintain his car. 7) The economists explained the economic system. 8) They explained the methods. 9) He told me how the British system works. 10) Economists describe how capital is used in business.

Unit 5 Text

In states which have a communistic system, private property and private enterprise are reduced to a minimum. They exist, but are limited to a small area of the economy. Karl Marx conceived of a world in which there would be no private property whatsoever. Communism in theory states that all property should belong to the State. In practice, however, the citizens of states like Cuba are permitted to have personal effects.

The important thing about the communist system is its central planning. The State organizes the whole economic effort of the nation. A central authority with complete power decides what goods and services will be produced. The authority decides what quantities of goods will be produced, and also controls their quality, deciding how they will be distributed and what prices will be charged for them. In addition, the State provides all (or most of) the services which the citizens require. It is responsible for the economy, and is therefore concerned with methods of production as well as with quality and quantity. The national economy must be planned ahead over a number of years.

A Marxist economy is planned. The system is related to the needs of the State as a whole, not to the needs of the private person. The emphasis is on collective effort and not on personal effort, so that the individual is subordinated to the needs of the collective State.

Exercises Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.

1) What two things are greatly reduced in a communistic system? 2) What area do they occupy in the economy? 3) What did Karl Marx propose about private property? 4) What is the theoretical communist view on property? 5) What is the position in practice? 6) What does the State do in the communistic system of central planning? 7) What two decisions does the central authority make? 3) What does the authority control? 9) What can the authority do about prices? 10) What is the State responsible for and what must it do?

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