Автор неизвестен - Mededworld and amee 2013 conference connect - страница 88

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Communicating with teachers: the key to change education management

Leire Arbea (Universidad de Navarra, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Pamplona, Spain) Manuel Alegre (Universidad de Navarra, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Pamplona, Spain)

Pepa Sanchez de Miguel (Universidad de Navarra, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Pamplona, Spain)

Nieves Diez (Universidad de Navarra, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Pamplona, Spain) Cristina Rodriguez (Universidad de Navarra, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Pamplona, Spain)

(Presenter: Marta Ferrer, Universidad de Navarra, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Pio XII, 36, Pamplona 31008, Spain)

Background: Our students are distributed among different State hospital locations that makes it complicated to manage and communicate. We started a Medical Education Department to facilitate and change this process.

Summary of work: We built a questionnaire delivered to each teacher from three clinical settings, School of Medicine teaching hospital (SOM), public hospital (PH) and Family practice settings (FP). We utilized a web-based software (Encuesta Facil, by Universia, Madrid, Spain) that allows web response and post hoc statistical analysis. We also analyzed if there were significant differences between teaching settings. We explored three areas: 1. Self perception of burden and dedication; 2. Influence in professional performance; 3. Formal aspects of communication.

Summary of results: We obtained a response rate of 25% from the SOM teaching hospital, a 40% response rate from PH and a 55% rate response from the FP settings. We found significant differences in higher burden perception between hospitals (SOM and PH) and FP settings. The majority agreed that teaching does not impair patient care with a higher perception in FP settings agreeing that having students does improve patient care. We finally found that a big number of teachers would like to receive more information on learning objectives from the School of Medicine. Conclusions: Teaching does not interfere with patient care and could enhance professional performance. In spite of management perception, teachers demand more communication.

Take-home messages: In order to implement changes and manage education, a key step is to understand teachers' perception and to increase communication.

7FF ePosters: The Teacher Location: North Hall, PCC


Strong collegial networks and a desire for change are important for teachers who develop towards a scholarship of teaching and learning

Anders Sonesson (Lund University, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 157, Lund 22100, Sweden) Gudrun Edgren (Lund University, Faculty of Medicine, Lund, Sweden)

Background: Teachers undertaking scholarly inquiry into teaching and learning can improve education. Many universities wish to promote such undertakings e.g. with teaching awards and academies. Summary of work: The aim of this study is to better understand circumstances where teachers develop towards a Scholarship of teaching and learning, SoTL, in a research-intensive faculty of medicine and health sciences. We have interviewed teachers who have published peer-reviewed articles on teaching and learning and/or are members of the Teaching Academy. Summary of results: Teachers' scholarly inquiry into teaching and learning was primarily motivated by their concern for their professional and/or academic field. Important goals were improvement of healthcare and professional skills and values, strengthening of emerging academic disciplines, and professionalization of teaching. Students were seen as future colleagues and important agents for development. SoTL was described as a shared enterprise, where colleagues and extended networks were indispensible. Courses in medical education had been important in providing theory, shared vocabulary and opportunities to exchange experiences and create networks. Award systems and career advantages had not been important. All teachers had permanent positions and described having both freedom and responsibility in their work. Other circumstances described were concern and understanding of learning as a cornerstone of medical or health professions and, for some, similarities between methodologies in educational and medical/health inquiry.

Conclusions: Universities who wish to promote scholarly educational development should create opportunities for teachers to meet and create networks across professions and disciplines as well as positions within which teachers can undertake such enterprises. Award systems are probably not as important.



Types of potential biases within upward feedback assessments of medical training

Anli Yue Zhou (Royal Bolton Hospital, General Surgery, Minerva Road, Farnworth, Bolton, Manchester BL4 0JR, United Kingdom)

Paul Baker (Royal Bolton Hospital, Internal Medicine, Manchester, United Kingdom)

Background: The General Medical Council regulates UK medical training and upward feedback has been adopted to monitor teaching performance as a quality control of training for trainees. However, multiple biases exist, thus the accuracy of upward feedback is debatable. Through identifying influencing factors of upward feedback, we aim to provide suggestions to minimise upward feedback bias in medical training. Summary of work: This is a systematic review using a structured search strategy. Thirty-five databases were searched. Results were reviewed and relevant abstracts were shortlisted. All studies in English, both healthcare and non-healthcare literature, were included. No time limit was set. Full articles obtained were further screened for relevance. A simple pro-forma was used initially to identify the pertinent areas of upward feedback, so that a focused pro-forma could be designed to extract data. PB and AYZ reviewed articles separately and disagreements were resolved through negotiated consensus.

Summary of results: A total of 140 healthcare-related articles and 69 non-medical articles were acquired. The results will be presented and solutions to minimise upward feedback bias will also be discussed. Conclusions: Upward feedback improves ratee performance, but covert and overt bias still exists. Fear, retaliation, confidentiality and accountability are commonly addressed within the literature. Furthermore, the majority of studies only cover Kirkpatrick level-1, Reaction. More studies that go beyond level-1 can increase the awareness of different evaluation techniques in training programs. Moreover, triangulation of different feedback methods can optimise training quality.

Take-home messages: Upward feedback can improve ratee performance, but methods in reducing bias may be affected by financial and time constraints.


Development of an instrument for evaluating clinical teachers sensitive to the Japanese culture

Makoto Kikukawa (Kyushu University, Medical Education, 3-1-1 Maidashi Higashi-ku Fukuoka 812­8582, Japan)

Renee Stalmeijer (Maastricht University, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences Department of Educational Development and Research, Maastricht, Netherlands)

Sei Emura (Saga University Hospital, Center for Graduate Medical Education Development and Research, Saga, Japan)

Sue Roff (Dundee Medical School, The Centre for Medical

Educations, Dundee, United Kingdom)

Albert Scherpbier (Maastricht University, Faculty of

Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht,


Background: No valid instruments for evaluation of clinical teaching within Asian cultures have been reported within the literature. The majority of instruments that have been published in the field of medical education originate from Western countries. One of the factors which is heavily influenced by cultural issues when developing evaluation instruments is the content validity of an instrument. Summary of work: To develop an instrument sensitive to the Japanese culture and with good content validity for evaluating a clinical teacher, modified Delphi approach was used, involving three groups of stakeholders (5 education experts, 12 clinical teachers and 10 residents).

Summary of results: Two rounds of Delhi were conducted. Through the procedure, 52 prospective items were reworded, combined or eliminated. Finally, a 25 item instrument was developed. Conclusions: This is the first validated instrument for assessing clinical teachers reported from Asian countries. The instrument has similarities and differences compared with instruments developed in Western countries. Our findings suggest the content of the instrument should not be universal, but cultural aspects should be taken seriously. Take-home messages: 1. The content validity of an instrument for assessing clinical teachers can be influenced by cultural aspects. 2. Cultural and geographical background should be considered more in medical education.


The Effective Factors for Teaching competency of nursing faculty in Iran

Hormat Sadat Emamzade Ghasemi (Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nursing Management, Tohid Sq. Tehran, Iran Mansoreh Farahani (Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nursing Management, Tehran, Iran)

Forough Rafii (Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Medical & Surgical Nursing, Tehran, Iran)

Background: Competent nurse teachers have an important effect on the success of nursing students and improving the quality of nursing care. Acquiring teaching competency is a dynamic process that depends on a variety of socio-cultural contexts. Summary of work: A grounded theory approach was used and took place in universities of Tehran. Data collected through 14 in-depth individual interviews were conducted with purposeful and theoretical samplings from ten participants' of nursing teachers to better understand about their experience. Interviews were


taped, transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method.

Summary of results: Two categories of internal and external factors that influenced the acquisition of teaching competency for nurse teachers emerged: Internal factors such as 1) Individual characteristics, 2) performance characteristics and 3) Educational experiences, and External factors such as 1) Organizational factors and 2) Socio-cultural factors. The view of nurse teachers about concept of nursing and nursing education has the most effect on their acquiring teaching competency.

Conclusions: Understanding the factors that influence acquiring of teaching competency for Iranian nursing teachers is important as it broadens prior knowledge and confirms the factors that are important to facilitate attaining competency and to aid success in faculty development strategies.


Enhancing co-operation between teachers - a co-operational pedagogical training for teachers

Outi Salminen (University of Helsinki, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, P.O.Box 56 (Viikinkaari 5), Helsinki 00014, Finland) Nina Katajavuori (University of Helsinki, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helsinki, Finland) Henna Asikainen (University of Helsinki, Helsinki University Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education, Faculty of Behavioral Sciences, Helsinki, Finland)

Background: The culture of teaching is often individualistic. Pedagogical training concentrates often on educating individual teachers in higher education. Summary of work: A co-operational and communal pedagogical training for all the university lecturers at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, was designed and conducted at the Faculty during the year 2011-2012. Program consisted of four contact meetings with additional three small group meetings in between and working in Moodle environment. Teachers aimed at improving their teaching practices in the small groups. Teachers produced a learning diary during the course and they were interviewed after the course. Summary of results: Teachers were satisfied with the training. The attitude of the participant teachers was positive towards the training. They felt that they had learned and been able to exchange ideas with their colleagues. They felt that the co-operation between the teachers increased during the course. As one outcome of the training a handbook of teaching at the Faculty of Pharmacy was produced. The handbook consists of the best teaching practices gathered from the participants of the training.

Conclusions: Improving education at curriculum level needs co-operation between teachers. Thus, pedagogical training should include communal aspect and not concentrate only on educating individual teachers. Pedagogical training including co-operational

aspect works well and may increase the sense of community of teachers.

Take-home messages: There is a need to improve co-operational pedagogical training for university teachers.


Appreciative Inquiry as a frame for developing the Scholarship of Teaching: a Constructivist Approach to Faculty Development

Richard Blunt (Department of Educational Services (DES), St. George's University, St. George, Grenada)

Background: Reflective practice (Schon 1983, 1987, 1993) prepared the way for Boyer's (1990) introduction of the scholarship of teaching. Boyer's work appealed to teaching faculty and changed faculty evaluation. Unfortunately, the evaluation of teaching has become increasingly synonymous with student ratings, which has weakened the project of developing a scholarship of teaching. This paper explores a qualitative approach to faculty development using reflective practice to develop the scholarship of teaching meaningfully. Summary of work: Viewing reflective practice as a process of faculty and organizational development, I considered the possibility of couching reflective practice in a framework of appreciative Inquiry (AI) (Cooperrider, 1987, 2003). Appreciative Inquiry encourages the construction of rich narratives as a foundation for reflecting on career development. I used this approach with faculty who asked for help with developing their teaching portfolios.

Summary of results: Faculty found affirmation and inspiration for documenting and developing their scholarship of teaching by exploring their careers using the steps of Affirmative Inquiry.

Conclusions: Appreciative Inquiry provides a meaningful approach for reflecting on faculty's teaching goals, values and theory-informed practice by encouraging the construction of personal narratives that have given direction to their careers.

Take-home messages: Despite the current trend of reducing faculty evaluation to student ratings, the use of affirmative inquiry provides a framework through which to approach the scholarship of teaching more meaningfully using reflective practice.


Special competence in medical education in Finland

Leila Niemi-Murola (University of Helsinki, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Helsinki, Finland)

Paula Vainiomaki (University of Turku, Primary Care, Turku, Finland)

Veli-Matti Leinonen (University of Turku, Primary Care, Turku, Finland)

Hannu Halila (Finnish Medical Doctor's Association, Finnish Medical Doctor's Association, Helsinki, Finland)


(Presenter: Minna Kaila, University of Helsinki, Hjelt Institute, Mannerheimintie 172, P.O. Box41, Helsinki 00014 HY, Finland)

Background: In 2008, Association for Medical Education in Finland took an initiative to establish a special competence in medical education. The competence was aimed to benefit medical teachers working outside academic centres and without scientific merits. The purpose of this study is to survey the success of the initiative.

Summary of work: The portfolios of the accepted applicants (N = 137) were included in the study. From the portfolios, demographic data, educational experience, received pedagogical education and educational scientific activity were extracted. Summary of results: Seventy percent of the applicants were female (N = 97), and their mean age was 48,42 years (SD 6.53). Seventy-five percent of them were PhD, and 43.3% were associate professors. Half of them are working in the hospital district of capital city. The most frequent specialities were conservative specialities (29.2%), general practitioners (27.3%) and operational specialities (16.8%). The great majority (84.7%) had working experience mainly as full-time employees (mean duration 63.54 months) and 45.4% had worked as part-time teachers in or outside the university (mean duration 56.7 months). Eighty-one percent of the applicants had received more than half the mandatory pedagogical education in the university and 75.9% had received the elective pedagogical education similarly. Thirty-eight applicants had participated in an international educational congress (AMEE, ADEE or other). Participation in an international congress correlated significantly to scientific activity (p<0.01). Conclusions: Great majority of medical teachers having special competency have academic background. Participation in international congresses encourages scientific educational activity.

Take-home messages: Medical teachers working outside university clinics have major difficulties in receiving pedagogical education.


Evaluation of an Experiential Postgraduate Certificate Programme for GP Educators

Hilary Diack (Surrey Sussex Department of Postgraduate General Practice Education, General Practice, 7 Bermondsey Street, London SE1 2DD, United Kingdom) Abdollah Tavabie (Surrey Sussex Department of Postgraduate General Practice Education, London, United Kingdom)

Background: Forty one general practitioners completed a pilot Postgraduate Certificate in Medical Education and Strategic Leadership - a partnership between KSS Postgraduate Deanery and Kent University. Programme content focused on the role of GPs as clinicians, educators and workers in a multidisciplinary team.

Summary of work: A qualitative evaluation comprising: On-line questionnaire of GP Educators with 34 (83%) responses; 26 Semi-structured interviews. Summary of results: Local, facilitated learning sets were significant in enabling participation. Students reported integrating theory with everyday practice including how to apply research and use audit to enhance the quality improvement of patient care. The reflective portfolio assessment strategy afforded a dynamic, personalised journey of professional development. The IT platform provided GP educators support. The pilot was significant in demonstrating a high completion rate for a postgraduate programme. Confirmation of adopting learning sets and a portfolio assessment strategy whilst positively evaluated presented anticipated challenges in terms of consistency of delivering the programme and marking the portfolio: mitigation included meetings with the learning set facilitators and calibration exercises undertaken with support from internal and external moderators.

Conclusions: The evaluation is acknowledged at Kirkpatrick level 2; further evaluation including behavioural change and impact on patient care is achievable through the unique coupling of the academic assessment with the professional re-accreditation portfolio.

Take-home messages: To develop a postgraduate programme with a high completion rate key strategies include: A programme with high content and face validity; Assessment built on personalised portfolios; A Strategic approach to improve reliability; Effective IT support.


Educational quality system and the improvement of supervision skills

Robert Oostenbroek (Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Education, P.O. Box444, Dordrecht 3300 AK, Netherlands)

Monica Van de Ridder (Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Education, Dordrecht, Netherlands) On behalf of the Programme Committee (Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Dordrecht, Netherlands)

Background: From 2009 to 2013 we developed and implemented an educational quality system (EQS) consisting of a range of educational tools (e.g. facilitated discussion on supervisory topics, faculty assessments and Teaching on the Run). The purpose of this EQS is to improve faculty teaching competences. During these years we especially focused on the competence of supervising residents in formulating learning goals. Summary of work: Each medical discipline is annually asked to evaluate faculties' teaching competences -including the competence of teaching goal-setting - and to discuss outcomes with faculty and residents together. The Postgraduate Committee yearly monitors results for each discipline. Based on the outcomes medical disciplines are stimulated to use EQS tools. Summary of results: Although the structure of EQS as a whole is functioning, results in 2012 hardly differ from


the outcomes of former years. From 2010-2012 the mean self assessment scores for faculty (n=146) were 3.6, 3.2, and 3.3, residents (n=108) give them a slightly higher score 3.8, 3,5 and 3.6. In general faculty discuss the outcomes with residents on a superficial and infrequent manner. Of the EQS tools the Teach-the-Teacher programme is mostly used. Conclusions: Although faculty uses the EQS tools, why does it not lead to improvement of their supervision of goal-setting skills? The awareness of lack of competence might be higher if the discussion of outcomes with residents and faculty is facilitated and more tailored to the educational needs of the different disciplines. Take-home messages: The dialogue on educational topics between faculty and residents profits from external facilitation.


Development of a Faculty Development Program at a new regional expansion campus: An innovative integrated and collaborative approach

Jana Bajcar (University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Mississauga Academy of Medicine, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Rd N, Terrence Donnelly Health Sciences Complex, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1C6, Canada)

Pamela Coates (University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, Canada)

Lori Innes (University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, Canada)

Karen Leslie (University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, Canada)

Background: A regional campus was opened as part of an established medical school within a new academic community which required rapid training of new teachers and engagement of clinicians. This presentation will described the development of a new customized locally delivered Faculty Development (FD) program that was designed with unique features to engage and prepare new teachers, our experience, and lessons learned.

Summary of work: A situational analysis was conducted that produced an innovative FD Conceptual Framework and 7 principles that guided the development of an integrated and collaborative FD approach. The goal was to align: (1) strategies to assist new community teachers to implement best practices in teaching and learning; (2) preparation of medical students to engage with a new community-based academic setting; and (3) preparation of the new teaching clinical environment to support medical students and new teachers. Summary of results: The current program offers over 100 FD sessions annually with 1/3 of the sessions delivered via an innovative "Just-in-time" FD approach that we call EduCafes, and that have been extremely popular. The overall program has had great uptake with over 1500 participants over the past 2 У2 years with 95% of the participants indicated that their expectations were met.

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