Автор неизвестен - Mededworld and amee 2013 conference connect - страница 80

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Location: Meeting Room 4.2, PCC

Menno de Bree (UMCG, Institute for Medical Education, FC40, A.Deusinglaan 1, Groningen 9713 AV, Netherlands)

Eite Veening (UMCG, Institute for Medical Education, Groningen, Netherlands)

Background: Helping doctors improving their ethical competencies is pretty difficult. Traditionally, ethicists basically tried to transfer specialized theory to the heads of the physicians, assuming that this would help them to address ethical issues more adequately. However, these kinds of educational interventions are often judged to be too abstract and impractical, leaving doctors behind with the idea that ethics is too difficult or not their cup of tea. Skipping teaching ethical theory is, however, not a good idea. While facilitating ethics discussions, we noticed that 'infusing' just the right amount of theory on the right time, greatly improved the performance of our discussion groups: discussions became richer, deeper, and more focused, while the reflection process itself speeded up. We realized that we should 'repack' ethical knowledge, and offer it to doctors in a way that they are familiar with, suits their needs, and supports their reflection processes in practice. We thus developed a set of 'educational tools' that should be introduced in small, modular packages (thematic minicourses of 5 minutes max). This helps participants to: (a) smoothly integrate ethical theory with their existing knowledge (and skills), (b) apply this knowledge directly in their own situation, and (c) see what the practical relevance of ethical theory is.

Structure of workshop: Short introduction of the educational background; Short introduction of at least two of our conceptual tools; Exercises; Discussion; Evaluation.

Who should attend: Ethics trainers, looking for new educational tools; Health care professionals, interested in doing ethics in a practical and down to earth way. Level: Introductory

7R Workshop: Generalizability (G)

theory in clinical skills assessments Location: Meeting Room 2.2, PCC

Kimberly Swygert (National Board of Medical Examiners, Scoring Services, 3750 Market Street,

Philadelphia 19104, United States)

Background: Assessment of clinical skills is a crucial part of undergraduate and graduate medical education, and the use of standardized clinical skills examinations for both formative and summative assessment is now widespread. An understanding of the basics of generalizability theory (G theory) concepts, applications, and software options is crucial for any clinical skills test developer or administrator who wishes to develop or improve assessments for communication skills, data gathering, written communications, and other skills. Intended outcomes: This workshop will provide an overview of G theory, with a focus on (a) covering G theory concepts and formulas that are most useful in the clinical skills context, (b) introducing specialized G theory software, (c) using G theory to assess the impact of case/rater specificity and estimate the reliability of a clinical skills assessment, and (d) the role of G theory analyses in collecting validity evidence. Examples from

the United States Medical Licensure (USMLE) Step 2 CS

examination, as well as other datasets, will be used for demonstrations.

Structure of workshop: Interactive presentation via Powerpoint with accompanying handouts and extra material.

Who should attend: Medical school faculty and assessment administrators who would like to learn the basics of G theory in order to expand their knowledge base and understand how to assess and improve their clinical skills examinations. 7S Workshop: Teaching in the Clinical Setting: Strategies to Assist the Teacher in Difficulty

Location: Meeting Room 3.1, PCC

Leslie Flynn (Queen's University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kingston K7L 3N6, Canada) Denyse Richardson (Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Canada)

Linda Snell (McGill University, Centre for Medical Education, Montreal, Canada)

Lara Cooke (University of Calgary, Continuing Medical Education & Professional Development, Calgary, Canada)

Background: Front-line clinician-teachers are essential to medical education; yet most do not have formal training in teaching. Qualities of excellent clinical teachers are well described but a gap exists in the literature on how to address individuals at the opposite end of the spectrum - the ineffective teacher. The focus is on teacher performance in the clinical setting. Intended outcomes: This interactive workshop will assist faculty developers and clinician educators to develop and implement a remediation program for the clinical teacher in difficulty. Remediation strategies can be tailored to meet the participants' own educational environment.

Structure of workshop: Use of archetypal cases and a

systematic educational plan.

Who should attend: Clinical Teachers

Level: Intermediate


7T Workshop: You do it !!....No you do it !!...Whose role is It ...? Using the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to assess interprofessional

education competencies

Location: Meeting Room 3.2, PCC

Brian S Simmons (University of Toronto, Pediatrics, 88

College Street, Toronto M5G1L4, Canada)

Susan J Wagner (University of Toronto, Speech-

Language Pathology, Toronto, Canada)

Ann Jefferies (University of Toronto, Pediatrics, Toronto)

Diana Tabak (University of Toronto, Standardized

Patient Program, Toronto, Canada)

Background: Interprofessional education (IPE) is the process through which different professions learn about, from and with each other to promote collaborative practices, facilitate teamwork and optimize patient/client care. IPE competency frameworks provide a description of the knowledge, skills, behaviours and attitudes necessary to achieve these learning goals. However, assessing learning outcomes for these IPE competencies remains a challenge. Competency frameworks emphasize the assessment of performance in each competency. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a performance-based assessment methodology, is often used to assess performance of individual learners, but less frequently to assess IPE competencies. This workshop will focus on the role of the OSCE to assess a competency framework

in IPE.

Intended outcomes: Participants in this workshop will be able to

Describe a competency framework for IPE Identify challenges to assessing performance in IPE Design an OSCE station that incorporates several IPE competencies

Plan an OSCE blueprint/map to assess the IPE competency framework relevant to different health professions.

Structure of workshop: Using brief didactic presentations and interactive group discussion, this workshop will provide participants with skills to develop OSCE stations/scenarios and blueprints/maps relevant to IPE. Participants will first explore how competency frameworks apply to IPE, how the OSCE can be used to assess these competencies and then observe, analyze and score simulated OSCE scenarios. Working in small groups, participants will design and discuss OSCE stations that incorporate IPE competencies. Who should attend: Health profession educators interested in assessment, evaluation, competencies and interprofessional education 7U Workshop : A Master Class in the Art

and Science of Visual Presenting

Location: Meeting Room 3.3, PCC

Douglas Buller (University of Toronto, The Wilson Centre, 200 Elizabeth St ES1-565, Toronto M5G 2C4, Canada)

Background: Presenting research/scholarly findings in an interdisciplinary context is one of the hardest forms of dissemination. There is considerable instruction available on how to use slide-ware, but much less that focuses on practical approaches to visual and narrative design.

Intended outcomes: In this interactive workshop, we will focus on the application of visual design theory and techniques that make presentations more engaging, easier to understand and more memorable. Structure of workshop: Participants will have the opportunity to work on creating presentations (individual or group based on attendance), receiving instruction and guidance on how to choose and incorporate images, how to distill textual slide content, and how to organize the flow of the presentation. The workshop will also focus on how to balance the presentation's aesthetic with rigorous academic expectations.

Who should attend: Participants should have a functional understanding of how to use PowerPoint or Keynote.

Level: Intermediate


7V Workshop: AMEE "Live" Teaching Challenge - a tool for learning and faculty development

Location: Room A, Holiday Inn

Paul de Roos (Uppsala University Hospital, Neurology

Department, Ing 85, 2 tr, Uppsala 751 85, Sweden)

Alice Fornari (Hofstra North Shore-LIJ, School of

Medicine, Hempstead, United States)

Patrick John Gannon (Hofstra North Shore-LIJ, School of

Medicine, Hempstead, United States)

Suleyman Yildiz (Yeditepe University, Medical School,

Istanbul, Turkey)

Jon Forssman (Uppsala University Hospital, Neurology Department, Uppsala, Sweden)

Par J Hoglund (Karolinska University Hospital, Pediatrics, Stockholm, Sweden)

Background: Teaching effectiveness can be evaluated by a number of potential sources of evidence, for instance student ratings, self-ratings and peer-observation. High quality feedback is essential to provide an innovative learner-centered faculty development approach. For this workshop we design an exploratory learning environment evaluates how a teacher can facilitate learning, be observed, get direct feedback and engage into discussion with a focus on further skills development. The workshop participants are students, peers and education experts who share their evaluations to help the teachers learn.

Intended outcomes: Explore and reflect on possible opportunities for "live" faculty development Facilitate learning among colleagues by sharing multiple sources of feedback

Structure of workshop: The participants of the workshop will be distributed in three rooms. Three educators will have the opportunity to deliver three teaching sessions of 15 minutes each (one in each room). After the teaching sessions, feedback rounds will start (10 minutes each).

The three teachers are assigned to prepare a 15 minute educational intervention to a diverse group of session participants in different spatial settings and the challenge for the faculty is to adjust and use the best teaching pedagogy. The teachers will be provided with feedback from multiple sources: student ratings, self-ratings and peer-observation verbally and by a standardized evaluation instrument. The discussion will provide constructive and empowering feedback. The session facilitators have an opportunity to self-assess themselves using the same methodology. The session participants will observe and write down at least two concrete behaviors they observed, to help strengthen them in their own role as educators. Who should attend: faculty, learners and those responsible for faculty development. Level: Intermediate

7Z Posters: Student and Junior Doctor as Teacher

Location: South Hall, PCC


Giving medical students an introduction to teaching: a near-peer approach

Ayrton Goddard (South Devon Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, Medicine, Torbay Hospital, Torquay

TQ2 7AA, United Kingdom)

Jennifer Goddard (South Devon Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, Medicine, Torquay, United Kingdom)

Background: Doctors in the UK are required by the General Medical Council (GMC) to participate in teaching and training. However it is not clear how trainees should develop the necessary skills. It has been suggested that medical students should receive formal teaching of educational principles to help meet these GMC requirements.

Summary of work: We designed and delivered a one hour 'Introduction to Teaching' session for a group of 70 undergraduate medical students. This covered core educational principles. Our aim was to assess how a one-off near-peer led teaching session influenced perceived student knowledge of educational principles, and confidence when delivering teaching sessions. Summary of results: Comparison of pre-and post-session questionnaires indicated improved confidence, understanding, and knowledge of educational principles as a result of attending the session. Qualitative data highlighted key student concerns about leading teaching sessions, and benefits of attending our session. Conclusions: Implementation of our 'Introduction to teaching' session was successful. Students felt better prepared to deliver teaching after attending, with improved knowledge and confidence. Our data highlights how undergraduate medical students may benefit from a formal introduction to medical education within medical school curricula. Attending a single introductory session could help medical students meet the GMC requirements relating to teaching and education.

Take-home messages: Medical students may benefit from receiving a formal introduction to educational theory to prepare them for teaching responsibilities as doctors. Attending a single introductory session on educational theory improves students' knowledge, and increases their confidence when teaching others.


Peer Teaching in Approach to Multiple Injury Conditions

Thananit Sankomkamhang (Medical Education Center, Khon Kaen Hospital, Orthopaedics, Srichan Road, District Maung, Khon Kaen 40000, Thailand)

Background: Peer teaching is one of the appropriate learning methods. Fourth year medical students were


assigned to teach their peers how to approach multiple injury patients based on emergency situation at the ER. Students performed role-playing and then discussed in small group related to clinical skills and knowledge regarding multiple injuries. This study aimed to determine the effective of PEER teaching in approaching multiple injuries.

Summary of work: 163 year fourth-medical students were taught in a 30-minute introductory session about approaching multiple Injury conditions and were assigned to practice these skills with their peers under close supervision. Students were divided into two groups: teaching by peers with role-playing (PEER group) and teaching by staff with bedside teaching (Teaching group). Then clinical instructors assessed their knowledge and approaching multiple injury skills after one hour using checklist.

Summary of results: The mean score of approaching multiple injury skills and knowledge was 4.34 (0.52) and 4.1 (10.43) PEER and Teaching groups respectively. The average competency score in PEER group was statistically significant higher than teaching group (P=0.006). Students in PEER group indicated that they appreciated teaching by peers in approaching multiple injury conditions.

Conclusions: Approaching multiple injury skills and knowledge with PEER teaching in role-playing may be considered an appropriate method for medical students. Take-home messages: PEER teaching with role-playing may be useful for obtaining other orthopaedic approach



Student teachers' experiences in a teaching cascade scheme based around the use of a web-resource

Ryan Norman (Queen Mary University London, Barts and The London School and Medicine and Dentistry, 137 St Stephens Road, Bow, London E3 5JW, United Kingdom Della Freeth (Queen Mary University London, Barts and The London School and Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom)

Background: There is increasing pressure for medical students to graduate with proficiencies in teaching. A teaching cascade system allows a self-directed method of improving teaching skills, whilst also improving the knowledge and skills of other students. The example in this case study is the UK's NICE (National Institute of Clinical excellence) Student Champion scheme, which is a national programme aiming to teach the use of a web-resource using a teaching cascade method. Student Champions who complete training, cascade their learning by teaching peers and evaluate their activities receive a NICE certificate recording their participation. Summary of work: This study examined the experiences of student teachers enrolled in the Student Champion Scheme. A qualitative analysis was conducted on data from semi-structured interviews with participating student teachers.

Summary of results: The study is on-going and preliminary results suggest that the cascade system scheme improves the student teacher's own knowledge and skill in using the web-resource, beyond the expertise gained during training. General development of teaching skills combined, with official certification of teaching was viewed positively. Concerns centred on containing the time invested. Conclusions: The NICE certification of Student Champions' work could help differentiate them from peers in a competitive market for doctor training posts. We anticipate that the teaching and content expertise gained will be useful during training posts and beyond. Student Champions improved their teaching and content expertise through engagement in cascade teaching.

Take-home messages: Cascade teaching helps the students who teach to learn more.


Reflections on the benefits of introducing the NICE Student Champions Scheme: An action research study

Adel Boparai (Queen Mary University London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Medical Education, Turner Street, London E1 2AD, United Kingdom

Della Freeth (Queen Mary University London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom)

Background: The UK's National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) promotes evidence-based practice (EBP) and has developed a free quality-assured web-resource, NHS Evidence. The target users are health professionals and healthcare students. The NICE NHS Evidence Student Champions Scheme promotes healthcare students' use of the resource. It provides training and certification for Student Champions who cascade their knowledge and undertake evaluation. AB and two peers led and evaluated the introduction of the Scheme within our medical school. Summary of work: Action research: Cycle 1 (C1) comprised ethical scrutiny; recruitment of Student Champions; collaboration with faculty (academics, specialist librarians, administrators) to negotiate introduction of NHS Evidence sessions; NICE training for Champions; design and delivery of optional NHS Evidence Sessions for 246 2nd year medical students and evaluation, which included perspectives of student participants, Student Champions and faculty (questionnaires, focus groups, individual interviews and a reflexive research journal). Cycle 2 will address modifications in response to C1 evaluation, then address embedding of the Scheme in curricula. Summary of results: Faculty buy-in was secured and, after studying the curriculum, initial focus on 2nd year medical students agreed. A series of workshops trained 10 Student Champions. Champions scheduled 4 NHS Evidence teaching sessions in February 2013. Evaluation data is being collected from all stakeholder groups.


Results to date demonstrate positive reactions and support for embedding.

Conclusions: The Scheme raised awareness of EBP, improved participants' EBP research skills and developed the Student Champions' teaching skills. Take-home messages: Action research supported reflexive development of student-led education for EBP.


An effective strategy to reduce 'neurophobia' amongst medical students

Zanna Voysey (King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill Campus Teaching Group, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, United Kingdom Victoria Wallace (King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill Campus Teaching Group, London, United Kingdom)

Polly Robinson (King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill Campus Teaching Group, London, United Kingdom)

Meng Wang (King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill Campus Teaching Group, London, United Kingdom)

Rahul Kumar Mukherjee (King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill Campus Teaching Group, London, United Kingdom)

Background: Neurology is often considered a challenging component of the medical curriculum, with 'neurophobia' becoming an increasingly recognised phenomenon among medical students. We evaluated whether the addition of a near-peer led teaching program to existing traditional consultant teaching could help to mitigate neurophobia in our hospital. Summary of work: 25 third-year medical students received 6-10 bedside teaching sessions from a junior doctor, in addition to traditional consultant led bedside teaching over a 12-week period. Students evaluated the program with a questionnaire pre and post-course, assessing both subjective perceptions and confidence in the specialty, and objective measures of hours of teaching/number of patients seen. Summary of results: Neurophobia appeared to be a salient phenomenon, with only 4% of students perceiving neurology to be 'not difficult' prior to the course, and 64% of students expressing 'low or no confidence' in their ability to undertake an effective neurology history/examination. The program was successful in making a significant improvement (p=0.026) to this, independent of whether students had previous neurosciences experience. Despite seeing significantly more patients with consultants and receiving personalised feedback more frequently (p=0.0341), students rated near-peer led teaching as very useful, and equally as useful as consultant teaching (p=0.703). There was, however, a weak positive association between the no. of patients seen/amount of feedback received with senior doctors and confidence in neurological examination (R2= 0.25) which was not seen in near-peer teaching (p=0.895).

Conclusions: Combining a near-peer teaching program with traditional teaching may help to reduce neurophobia. The program could be improved further by training juniors in delivering feedback to students.


Near-peer teaching programme in Kent, UK: impact on final-year medical students preparing for practical exams

Adam Dennis (Queen Elizabeth Queen Mother Hospital,

Medicine, Margate, United Kingdom)

Dilip Abraham (Queen Elizabeth Queen Mother,

Medicine, St Peters Road, Margate CT9 4AN, United


Background: Near-peer learning is developing in medical education. The authors designed and delivered a weekly bedside teaching programme for final-year medical students at a district general hospital in Kent, UK. Summary of work: Junior doctors were recruited as tutors and assigned to small groups of students in the Margate OSCE Tutoring Scheme (MOTS). The objectives of the teaching programme were to refine clinical examination and presentation skills in preparation for practical finals. Students completed pre- and post-course questionnaires.

Summary of results: 23 of 44 students completed questionnaires over two rotations, using Likert scale responses. Clinical examination skill was rated higher post-course (mean post-course 3.70/5.00 vs pre-course 3.00/5.00) as was confidence in examination skills (3.04/5.00 vs 2.50/5.00). Students felt better prepared for final exams (3.00/5.00 vs 2.80/5.00) and better able to present their findings (3.13/5.00 vs 2.70/5.00). The direct impact of MOTS was assessed post-course. 73% of students felt MOTS had improved their clinical skills, with 78% reporting improved confidence in their findings. 73% felt more confident in presenting and discussing findings. Limitations include: partial response rate, small sample size, the impact of other teaching the students received.

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