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Take-home messages: These results suggest that the validity of an admissions scheme can be optimized by focusing on desirable domains to measure, rather than those tools that will measure them. This programmatic approach parallels recent advances in approaches to assessment.
The interview - its place in the medical selection process: some initial explorations
Chris Skinner (University Notre Dame, Medicine, Henry St, Fremantle 6011, Australia) Raoul Oehman (Notre Dame University, Medicine, Fremantle, Australia)
Background: Recent selection research has cast some doubt on the use of the interview and suggests additional methods that could replace or be used in conjunction with the interview. Currently there are four different indices upon which students are evaluated when seeking admission to UNDA School of medicine including their GPA (grade point average), their GAMSAT score, their score on an interview, and the medical
student selection form. The interview itself consists of five sections: motivation, interpersonal team, empathy, ethics and communication. Summary of work: An analysis for 2011 and 2012 medical cohort selection scores was undertaken, to establish whether the interview process was providing useful different and additional information to that provided through the GPA, GAMSAT and medical student selection form scores. Secondly, the interview was examined to establish whether separate interview sections contributed to a valid interview score. Summary of results: A. Examination of the four selection measures suggested that they measured different aspects of the students' abilities. Significant associations included: As GAMSAT scores go up, Interview scores tend to become lower. As GPA scores go up, scores on the UNDA Selection Form tend to become lower. B. Results suggest that despite having 5 Interview segments, we are only measuring one major underlying factor.
Conclusions: A. Academic performance (GPA and GAMSAT) measures, compared to Selection form and Interview measures were considered measuring significantly different aspects. B. Factor analysis suggested that the interview process is assessing one major factor, which appears to be a 'global interview' or 'interview impression' factor.
Take-home messages: Review and design specific new interview segments, based on required competencies or abilities. The interview measures different aspects than academic performance.
Modified Personal Interviews for the Selection of MD/PhD Candidates
Kulamakan Kulasegaram (University of Toronto, Undergraduate Medical Education, Toronto, Canada) Lindsey Fechtig (University of Toronto, Canada) Nicole Woods (University of Toronto, Surgery, Toronto, Canada)
Norman Rosenblum (University of Toronto, Canada) Mark Hanson (University of Toronto, Canada)
Background: MD/PhD student selection requires assessment of characteristics related to research and the physician scientist career. While personal interviews are used to select MD/PhD students, a single personal interview is limited by low reliability. Hanson et al. (2012) showed that a modified personal interview (MPI) can be used for focused selection tasks; increasing reliability by using 4 brief, semi-structured interviews. We implemented the MPI in the context of MD/PhD selection.
Summary of work: Applicants to the University of Toronto MD/PhD program were evaluated via the MPI with 4 brief semi-structured personal interviews each with a single rater. Interviewers were given pre-selected questions but encouraged to be flexible in interviewing. Each interview was mapped to a single attribute valued for MD/PhD training: research experience, self-reflection, motivation, and the physician scientist
perspective. Three attributes (maturity, curiosity, critical analysis of psc) were mapped across all interviews. All attributes were evaluated via 7-point Likert scales. Results were analyzed for reliability using generalizability studies.
Summary of results: Forty-two applicants completed the MPI. Inter-interview reliability averaged across 4 interviews was 0.76. Inter-item reliability within a single interview was 0.94. Factor analysis showed all items loaded on a single factor with maturity items having highest loadings. A majority of applicants and interviewers found the MPI to be acceptable. Conclusions: The MPI has utility for selection of MD/PhD students. Future research will determine the validity of the selection process.
Take-home messages: MD/PhD student selection can be improved adopting the MPI format with high reliability and acceptability.
7M Short Communications: Student
Wellbeing and Support
Location: Club D, PCC
How an increase in personal resources initiates an upward spiral of resources and engagement in young veterinary professionals
Nicole JJM Mastenbroek (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Chair Quality Improvement in Veterinary Education, Netherlands) Harold GJ Bok (Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Netherlands)
Debbie ADC Jaarsma (University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Centre, Netherlands) Albert JJA Scherpbier (Maastricht University, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Netherlands) Peter van Beukelen (Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Netherlands)
Background: The transition from student to professional is a psychological developmental process and can be seen as a learning opportunity. Often it is accompanied by elevated levels of stress, however when transition is successful it can be highly engaging. According to the JD-R model, personal and job resources influence this process. Personal and job resources and work engagement are reciprocally related. In order to gain insight in how an intervention, focused on the increase of personal resources, influences job resources and work engagement, we conducted an explorative qualitative study.
Summary of work: We performed semi-structured interviews among 15 recently-graduated veterinary professionals who voluntarily participated in a 1-year coaching program on personal effectiveness. The interviews covered perceived growth of personal resources and perceived changes in job resources and work engagement.
Summary of results: Increased self-awareness, self-confidence, self-efficacy and perceived control were the most important results of the coaching program. The increase of personal resources lead to a more proactive attitude concerning the generation of job resources, which often resulted in an increase of perceived work engagement and reduction of stress. Conclusions: This study has created a better understanding of how increased efficacy beliefs can onset upward spirals of resources which subsequently can help young professionals to break out of the loss circle which leads to loss of engagement. Take-home messages: Efficacy beliefs are an important factor in the course of the transition and a target for interventions.
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 7 TUESDAY 27 AUGUST: 1045-1230
Doctor overnight, the never-ending student and the true self - Identity ambivalence in medical students
Hampus Perhamn (Medical School, Professional Development, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Umea, Sweden) Lindstrom Ulf (Medical School, Professional Development, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Umea, Sweden)
Eva E Johansson (Professional Development, Family Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Umea 90187, Sweden)
Background: Psychological distress such as depression, stress and burnout is common among medical students. Little is known about medical students' identity formation and its impact on wellbeing. This study aims to explore what it means to be a medical student in clinic and other social interactions. Summary of work: In this qualitative study we have analyzed 38 free-text essays about being a medical student, written by medical students at the course "Professional Development" at term seven in Medical school, Umea University, Sweden. Summary of results: Medical students' experienced that expectations on them differed depending on context. We found three different categories leading to identity ambivalence. In social situations, the informants were treated as 1) Doctor Over Night, being regarded as super-beings worthy respect and expected to have vast and all-embracing knowledge. But, they also felt considered as cocky and as if believing they were better than others. In the clinic, the informants were treated as 2) Never Ending Students expected to take part and learn but were treated as air and obstacles. These diametric expectations were in contrast with the students own view of their 3) True Self, which to some extent differed depending on gender. Conclusions: Being a medical student includes hard work in forging diametric expectations together and forming a congruent and solid professional identity. Take-home messages: To help medical students develop professional identity, medical educators should provide opportunities to discuss, and tools to understand, the social mechanisms in the clinic as well as in other social situations.
The lived experience of medical students with mental illness: a narrative study
Andrew Grant (Cardiff University, Institute of Medical Education, UGT 162A, UHW, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, United Kingdom)
Background: Medical students experience more mental ill health than age-matched controls but are reluctant to access help. To date no study has explored the lived experience of medical students who have suffered mental illness.
Summary of work: Eleven subjects, ten medical students and one junior doctor all of whom had experienced mental illness as students. Biographical narrative interviewing is carried out in stages. Firstly the interviewer asks a single question and takes structured notes from which they can ask questions aimed at hearing the narrative of particular episodes. Narrative offers the researcher a way of studying the content and the respondents' chosen way of expressing it. Summary of results: The following themes emerged: Students experienced serious mental illness involving suicide attempts, hospital admissions and self-harm. 6 students had a history of mental illness before medical school but only one declared it. Students were isolated by mental illness. Having to take a year's leave of absence was devastating for some students. Students concealed their illness from the school and their peers. Some performed well academically. Conclusions: By exploring narratives we were able to access episodes relevant to the students and to concentrate on aspects of importance to them. Medical students with mental illness may perform well academically but are isolated. Fears about revealing a mental illness act as a barrier to students accessing necessary support.
Take-home messages: When planning support services for medical students with mental illness students' views should be sought and students' fears for their career considered.
Assessing the Current Learning Environment and Making Suggestions for Improvement to Assist the Identified At-Risk Students - a Mixed Method
Amina Sadik (Touro University Nevada, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Basic Sciences, 874 American Pacific Drive, Henderson 89014, United States) Leticia Rojas (Touro University Nevada, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Basic Sciences, Henderson, United
Background: The number of students experiencing academic difficulty continues to plague medical schools worldwide. While studies have investigated the causes of underperformance by these medical students, none has listed academic markers of "at risk" students. Summary of work: This study aimed to find identifiers of these students based on the differences in learning practices between students with low, medium, and high performance. To this end, three cognitive tests were administered and a questionnaire was prepared. Summary of results: The data indicated that high performing students utilized more techniques to learn and sought additional resources when the teaching methods were not congruent with their way of learning. Medium performing students learned best when given practical applications of the material. The majority of low performing students found the volume of material to be overwhelming and needed improvement in study skills, suggesting that the lack of preparedness for the rigors of medical school played a major role in their
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 7 TUESDAY 27 AUGUST: 1045-1230
underperformance. Using Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the majority of low performing students have a diverging learning style; the medium performing students were predominately of accommodating learning style, whereas the greater part of high performing students had an assimilating learning style. Conclusions: The data suggest that in order to promote academic success for the majority of medical students, they should be assisted in finding the best learning style via diagnostic testing.
Take-home messages: After identification of at "risk students", a combination of study skills and time management learning tools should be provided.
Building resilience among medical students
Karen Trollope-Kumar (McMaster University, Family Medicine, 45 Marion Ave North, Hamilton L8S 4G2, Canada)
Background: Our prior study on Building Physician Resilience in Hamilton, Ontario, laid a foundation for a program to promote resilience among medical students. Our longitudinal curriculum on self-care and self-awareness in the undergraduate medical program at McMaster University is now in its sixth year. Summary of work: The self-care curriculum in the Professional Competencies program comprises five sessions in pre-clerkship and one follow-up session during clerkship. Students' reflective portfolios give them an additional opportunity to explore ways to build resilience.
Summary of results: Evaluation of the program each year by faculty and students has led to an increasing emphasis on a dynamic, experiential approach, using tools such as mindfulness, interactive web-based programs, a reflective portfolio, and student-planned field trips. This year, we extended the program into clerkship. Meeting in small groups with trained facilitators, students discuss clinical challenges and work on building personal resilience.
Conclusions: The Self-care and Self-Awareness program of the Professional Competencies curriculum, founded on prior research work on building resilience, focuses on the needs of undergraduate medical students. In small groups, students share the strategies for building resilience, using a dynamic, experiential approach. Positive evaluations of this program have led to an extension of the curriculum into clerkship. Take-home messages: Undergraduate medical students face a range of stressors, from academic pressures to the emotional demands of clinical environments. Our program provides a structured yet flexible way for medical educators to assist students in building resilience to stress.
Orientation program for fresh medical undergraduates: Experience from All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
Kishore Kumar Deepak (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Centre for Medical Education & Technology, Department of Physiology, New Delhi 110029, India) Balachandra Adkoli (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Centre for Medical Education & Technology, New Delhi, India)
Background: Medical students in India are generally poorly equipped in communication skills and stress coping when they enter the course. The problem is acute in our school which admits students coming from diverse geographical, linguistic and socio-economic backgrounds.
Summary of work: The school engaged a Management Institute for running a ten days orientation program. The program covered three components - viz. behavior, communication and theatrics, with a highly interactive process comprising group exercises, role plays and skits. Besides feedback from students, observations were made by the faculty to identify students who needed further support and counseling. The program was followed by two specific interventions - mentoring by the basic sciences faculty for all students and arranging regular classes of communication skills to address language deficiency for identified students. Summary of results: Student feedback was extremely positive. They were highly motivated. Their level of confidence and preparedness, as reported by the concerned teaching faculty was remarkably higher compared with previous batches. The batch developed teamwork skill in a healthy academic environment. Informal interactions with faculty revealed time constraint for mentoring. While regular communication classes appear to be useful, their long term impact needs to be studied.
Conclusions: Our experience was largely successful, mainly due to the committed administrative leadership that engaged a specialized agency. The quality and timing of the program besides follow up also contributed to the success.
Take-home messages: Early encapsulated intervention to orient the undergraduates followed by specific interventions can play a significant role to alleviate the adjustment problems and promote teamwork.
Medical students in difficulty: what screening? What actions for support?
Joel Ladner (Rouen School of Medicine, Public Health
Department, Rouen, France)
Olivier Mouterde (Rouen School of Medicine, Public
Health Department, Rouen, France)
Francis Roussel (Rouen School of Medicine, Public Health
Department, Rouen, France)
Christophe Girault (Rouen School of Medicine, Public Health Department, Rouen, France)
ABSTRACT BOOK: SESSION 7 TUESDAY 27 AUGUST: 1045-1230
Jean Francois Gehanno (Rouen School of Medicine, Public Health Department, Rouen, France)
Background: Some recent studies suggest that the frequency of medical students in difficulty is increasing. Objectives were to identify predictive factors of difficulties in medical students and to evaluate the outcomes after the onset of difficulty events. Summary of work: A case-control study was conducted in Rouen Medicine School in 2012. Cases were defined as students who had a major event: the non-validation of a hospital stage (HS), controls as all students who have validated all their HS. For all the students, the test scores from the year (Y) 2 to T6 of HS as well as curriculum examination results were collected. Notes and qualitative assessments obtained during oral examinations communication (face-to-face interviews with three examiners) in Y2 and Y3. Summary of results: A total of 104 students were included, 26 cases and 78 controls. The Y2 and Y3 examination scores (before the non-validation of a HS) were significantly lower among cases (53 points on a total of 800, p=0.001). These scores were lower communication among cases (1.03/20, p=0.02) related to failure of concentration and the poverty of language. The qualitative analysis identified more frequently if the behaviour such "anxious," "reluctant," "nervous". After the event, the continuation of curriculum was more difficult in cases, examination results were significantly lower
Conclusions: The non-validation of a HS seems to be a relevant criterion to identify students in difficulty. In a context of increasing numbers of promotion, a closed medical culture emotions, pressure related to more frequent examinations and the preparation of entrance exams in the 3rd cycle, new approaches for tracking, propose access to support services specifically dedicated to students in difficulty are needed Take-home message: New approaches are needed to provide a better support to students in difficulty
7N Meet the Expert: Victoria Brazil
Location: Meeting Room 2.1, PCC
Victoria Brazil (Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia)
Victoria Brazil in her plenary will look at two critical roles for medical education in the 21st century: aiming for a different 'end point' in the 21st century doctor, and reforming processes to achieve that aim, including returning patients to the centre of the education process. Come to meet Victoria to discuss further the issues she has raised in her presentation.
7O Workshop: Using free open access medical education (#FOAMed) to develop and support communities of learners for lifelong learning
Location: Meeting Room 3.5, PCC
Natalie Lafferty (University of Dundee, TILT, Medical Education Institute, CAMS, Level 8, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, United Kingdom) Annalisa Manca (University of Dundee School of Medicine, Medical Education Institute, Dundee, United Kingdom)
Laura-Jane Smith (University College London Medical School, Academic Centre for Medical Education, London, United Kingdom)
Ellie Hothersall (University of Dundee School of Medicine, Medical Education Institute, Dundee, United Kingdom)
Background: This workshop will raise awareness and demonstrate how tools such as blogs and twitter can support free open access medical education (#FOAMed), an internationally emerging trend in medical education. Intended outcomes: Understand how free social media tools such as blogs and twitter can be used to develop FOAMed resources to support learning, and how this can be blended with existing curricula. Apply the use of social media to design learning content tailored to specific learning needs and contexts. Highlight the versatility of the FOAMed approach across the continuum of medical education and in different learning contexts.
Understanding and evaluating the benefits of participating in FOAMed learning activities. A handout will be produced for workshop participants including an overview of theoretical paradigms, and practical advice on engaging staff and students in #FOAMed resource creation and use. We propose to write up a blog post after the workshop to share the outcomes of the workshop, including sharing the framework for adopting FOAMed approaches that participants define in the group activity. Structure of workshop: This interactive workshop will present an introductory overview of FOAMed approaches including:
relevant educational theory, examples outside academic institutions including #gasclass and #twitfrg and examples developed within academic institutions including #fluscenario and #quclms Participants will then work in groups to identify a framework to support the implementation of FOAMed approaches and develop a FOAMed resource. Who should attend: This workshop will be of interest to individuals keen to explore how open tools can support online learning in medical education. Level: Intermediate
7P Workshop: Using iPads in Undergraduate Medical Education
Location: Meeting Room 4.1, PCC
Colin J Lumsden (University of Manchester, Medical
School, Manchester, United Kingdom)
Lucie Byrne-Davies (University of Manchester, Medical
School, Manchester, United Kingdom)
Jo Hart (University of Manchester, Medical School,
Manchester, United Kingdom)
Ian Sampson (University of Manchester, Medical School, Manchester, United Kingdom)
Background: Students are increasingly using mobile devices to learn in sessions such as PBL, clinical placements, lectures, seminars etc. Medical schools are increasingly providing their students with mobile devices and in Manchester Medical School, UK, we give all of our clinical medical students iPads (since Jan 2011). We have a programme of research and evaluation about the use of mobile technologies in medical education. Intended outcomes:
An understanding of the challenges and benefits of iPads in medical education
Experience of using a mobile technology app Knowledge of medical student use of iPads Experience of developing research questions in mobile technology in medical education Structure of workshop: The workshop will be led by the implementation, evaluation and student teams from Manchester Medical School. We will use an iPad / ipod / iphone app (nearpod) to illustrate how mobile technologies can be used in a session. We will show examples of how our students use their iPads and we will discuss our experiences of implementing the iPad project. Participants will generate research and evaluation questions arising from the use of mobile technologies in medical education Who should attend: Educators who are interested to know more about what mobile learning can do for their students, staff and trainees and researchers and educators interested in researching mobile technologies. 7Q Workshop: Ethics teaching: Smooth and practical