Автор неизвестен - Mededworld and amee 2013 conference connect - страница 28

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Polly Robinson (King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill Teaching Group, London, United Kingdom)

Background: Female medical students are less confident than their male counterparts [Blanch et al 2008]. Self-confidence in medical students is important as it increases self-identification with the role of doctor and external perceived trust in ability. We piloted a teaching method designed to boost confidence levels in medical students to address this inequality. Summary of work: Third year medical students (n=62) attended an interactive lecture in interpreting a full blood count followed by small group teaching. They were asked to use a ten-point Likert scale to report their confidence before and after the workshop, as well as rating their overall self-confidence. Summary of results: Male medical students rated themselves as significantly more confident than female medical students (6.7 compared to 5.8, p<0.05). However all students reported an increase in their confidence in interpreting a full blood count (mean increment 55%, p<0.0001). Moreover self-assessed confidence levels in their ability after the teaching was

comparable between the sexes (6.6 in males, 6.8 in females).

Conclusions: This workshop was effective in improving the confidence levels of both male and female medical students in a clinically important task. Given the validated gender discrepancy in confidence, hospitals and medical schools should provide support and training to boost the confidence of women early in their careers. We suggest this workshop provides a framework for one possible intervention.

Take-home messages: Women are less self-confident than men. To address this inequality, medical schools should employ a range of methods specifically aimed at women to increase confidence. This will make them better doctors and ultimately improve patient safety.


Gender Equality in Undergraduate Clinical Medical Education - Are We There Yet?

Filippa Boijsen (Faculty of Medicine, University of Uppsala, Tegnergatan 20a, Uppsala 75227, Sweden) Niclas Lewisson (Institution of Surgical Sciences, General Surgery, Uppsala, Sweden) Jakob Johansson (Institution of Surgical Sciences, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Uppsala, Sweden)

Background: Historically, medicine has been a male-dominated profession. However, today the majority of medical students in Sweden are female. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible gender differences regarding medical students' perception of the quality of clinical teaching during rotations. Summary of work: We used a pre-existing online assessment tool consisting of ten questions reflecting different aspects of clinical teaching (Likert scale 1-6). Students from all 25 different clinical rotations at Uppsala Medical School in Sweden were included in the survey (n=509, female n= 282, male n=217). Assessments were collected during autumn semester


Summary of results: In total, 1703 student evaluations were collected (female n=1004, male n=699). The response rate was 70%. The mean rating±SD by female students was 4.34±1.12 and by male students 4.36±1.04 (p=0.98). Analysing the ten questions separately revealed differences in ratings regarding students' awareness of expected learning outcomes (female 4.70±1.13, male 4.49±1.16, p<0.001) and amount of feedback received (female 3.90±1.64, male 4.13±1.52, p=0.01).

Conclusions: There was no overall difference in perceived quality of clinical teaching between female and male students. However, female students rated their knowledge about expected learning outcomes higher, while male students experienced more feedback from their clinical tutors.

Take-home messages: In a Swedish setting, we found no overall difference in perceived clinical teaching quality between genders. However, some specific aspects were found to be different, which inspires further efforts


towards increased gender equality in clinical medical education.


Third gender in Medical Students: Are there any difficulties?

Panita Pathipvanich (Lampang Hospital, Medical Education Center, 280/14 Paholyothin Rd.Ampur Muang Lampang 52000, Thailand)

Background: The number of the third gender in medical students has increased. As they are rather sensitive, do they have more problems than the other medical students? To answer these questions, a blind survey was done under the approval of the ethics committee and medical students committee.

Summary of work: From 1st January to 28th February 2013, 139 questionnaires were sent to 4th, 5th and 6th year medical students in Lampang Hospital, asking about their difficulties in four aspects: 1) gender and sexual behaviour; 2)Learning and patients care; 3)Relationship with their friends; and 4) Social and patients' acceptance. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Summary of results: Of all 65 completed questionnaires, 17 students (26.2%, 15 men and 2 women) accepted themselves as gay and dee, respectively. Among this group, ten (58.8%) chose IMAGE as the biggest problem while another 37 students (from 48, 77.1%) chose LEARNING. The parents of 12 gays knew their situation, 10 accepted but 2 opposed. 14 gays (82.8%) said that their colleagues knew and worked happily with them, got along with the same answer from another group (83.1%), 100% were sure that they had no patient care problems. When they had any difficulties, both groups preferred to consult their friends (83.08%). 90% said their pastime was playing on the internet. Only one man insisted on an operation for transgender. Conclusions: Third gender has no effect on their study and patient care but they should be careful with their expression.

Take-home messages: Most of the students accepted their friends whatever gender they are and 3rd gender has no more difficulties than usual.


Gender awareness of medical students in one university of Taiwan

Jui-Chi Hsu (Chang Gung University, Department of Medicine, No.78, Liaoning 2nd St., Sanmin Dist., Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan (R.O.C.) Mei-Chun Hsiao (Chang Gung Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Taoyuan, Taiwan)

Background: In the medical area, most cases of health status and health care utilization are the combinations of social and biological causes. Since the importance of sex and gender in the health field is acknowledged, we should emphasize gender awareness in medical education. Therefore, we need to know students'

attitude toward gender differences and stereotypes. The goal of this study is to find out the attitude to gender among medical students in Taiwan. Summary of work: In this cross-sectional study, 265 medical students voluntarily filled out a questionnaire with the Netherlands constructed scale, Nimegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale (N-GAMS). Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess construct validity. Linear regression was used to analyze the influences of socio-economic variables. Summary of results: Female students held fewer stereotype to patients than male. Mothers' education level and working status influenced the stereotypes to patients and doctors respectively. Students who joined a selective course about gender showed much more stereotypical to patients and doctors. Conclusions: Students' gender awareness may be affected by sex, socio-economic background, and selective course. When designing training about gender for medical students, we should consider their socio­economic background in different countries and cultures.

Take-home messages: The scale needs to modify the items to evaluate gender awareness appropriately. Gender and background would influence medical students' gender awareness; therefore, the gender-related courses need to be designed from country to country. The designed courses should play a role as stimulus which helps students to notice the gender issues around us in our daily lives.


Students' approaches to learning and factors related to the changes or stability of the deep approach during a pharmacy course

Maaret Varunki (University of Helsinki, Faculty of

Pharmacy, Helsinki, Finland)

Nina Katajavuori (University of Helsinki, Faculty of

Pharmacy, P.O.Box 56 (Viikinkaari 9), Helsinki 00014,


Liisa Postareff (University of Helsinki, Helsinki University Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education, Faculty of Behavioral Sciences, Helsinki, Finland)

Background: The deep approach to learning implies trying to integrate information to prior knowledge. Students applying a surface approach concentrate mostly on rote learning. The surface approach students concentrate mostly on rote learning. This approach seems to be more common among students in natural science like pharmacy. Students can also try to manage their studies by utilizing organised study methods. Summary of work: The aim of this study was to explore variation in pharmacy students' approaches to learning, how approaches change during a course and to analyse factors related to the changes in deep approach to learning. The first year students (n=84) filled in a questionnaire (revised version of ALSI) at the beginning and at the end of a course and 14 students were interviewed after the course.


Summary of results: The results revealed significant changes in deep and surface approaches to learning and organised studying during the course at group-level. However, analyses at the individual level revealed variation in the amount and direction of change. Self-regulation skills, motivation, goal-orientation and perceived workload explained the changes and stability of the deep approach.

Conclusions: The findings suggest that good self-regulation skills and intrinsic motivation supported the adoption of the deep approach to learning. Students show individual changes in the amount and direction of change in the approaches to learning. Especially self-regulation skills are related to the changes in approaches to learning.

Take-home messages: It is essential to enhance the adoption of the deep approach. Supporting self-regulation skills, motivating the students and appropriate workload should be taken into account in teaching.


Use of a learning strategies inventory to assess strategies used by matriculating medical students

Nitsa Topale (St. George's University, Dept. of Educational Services, Box 7, St. George's, Grenada)

Background: Student support professionals seek to find effective ways to accurately assess the needs of their students in order to design targeted programming for the students they serve. Medical students function at a high level and typically have well developed learning strategies that resulted in past academic success. Summary of work: For this study, the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) was used to obtain information regarding matriculating medical students' strengths and weaknesses as learners. It was anticipated that the results of the survey would not only indicate the effectiveness of using this inventory with students in professional programs, but also paint a clearer picture of the learning and study strategy strengths and deficiencies of new students.

Summary of results: The LASSI proved to be a reliable tool for assessing matriculating medical students' strengths and weaknesses as learners. Conclusions: Individual results of the LASSI offered valuable information for medical students to develop their own learning strategies either independently or with the assistance of a learning strategist. Analysis of LASSI results also enabled student support practitioners to obtain a picture of the matriculating cohort's learning weaknesses to ensure that programming matched students' needs.

Take-home messages: The LASSI was an effective diagnostic tool for assessing medical students' learning and study strategies and provided valuable information for student support practitioners and program coordinators.


The behaviours and attitudes of Thammasat preclinical medical students towards Self-directed learning

Suwanna Boonsirichan (Thammasat University, Preclinical Student, 607 Mangkorn Road, Samphantawong, Bangkok 10100, Thailand) Wisree Wayurakul (Thammasat University, Family Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand)

Background: Students are expected to study on their own during self-directed learning (SDL) sessions. As a matter of fact, students may prefer designing their learning process consistent to their learning style instead of being told how and when to study. Summary of work: A descriptive survey study focusing on students' levels of understanding SDL included with their behaviours and attitudes towards teachers-arranged SDL sessions were conducted. Self-administered questionnaires from 228 of 343 preclinical medical students (66.47%) were collected and thus evaluated.

Summary of results: A mean score of students' levels of understanding SDL was 5.81, from a perfect score of 10. Of various activities of utilizing SDL sessions, 36.62% of medical students reviewed classroom materials including own lecture notes while 40.35% found topic-related discussion among classmates was helpful. However, 13.16% failed to engage themselves in learning activities. Majority of students reported more SDL sessions during the exam week was needed. Supplementary materials such as self-evaluation questions with answers and full explanations were considered to enhance the SDL process. Several students viewed the SDL session as a free period in which they should be free to run their own errands. Conclusions: Despite the average understandings of SDL, preclinical medical students at Thammasat University tend to utilise SDL sessions for reviewing their lecture notes during the exam week while they took those sessions during rotations for granted. Take-home messages: Teachers are strongly recommended to educate students well about the objective of SDL sessions and to facilitate how students can optimize their self-directed learning skills.


The use of a learning style and motivational test to induce student results at the VUB Life Science Campus

Pascale Petit (Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), The Study Guidance Center - Life Sciences, Brussels, Belgium) Katrien Vanderstappen (Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), The Study Guidance Center - Life Sciences, Laarbeeklaan 103, Brussels 1090, Belgium) Eveline Bruneel (Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), The Study Guidance Center - Life Sciences, Brussels, Belgium) Bart Rombaut (Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Pharmaceutical Institute, Brussels, Belgium)


Background: LeMo (Learning style and Motivational test, Plantijn Hogeschool & EduBROn, 2010) was introduced at the VUB in 2011. This instrument provides students with feedback about their learning styles and motivation.

Summary of work: Students at the VUB Life Science Campus are asked to complete the LeMo test during their first months in higher education. The aim of this questionnaire is to determine whether certain learning skills, important for achieving good results, are present. We use this test because each student receives an individual feedback report immediately after filling out the questionnaire. This report contains further information and tips about personal learning skills and learning motivation. Student counsellors can use these reports to adjust their counselling style to the personal needs of students and thereby prevent possible drop­outs.

Summary of results: Through an analysis of the participation rate we can conclude that embedding this questionnaire in an existing course is necessary to point out the importance of reflection to students. Conclusions: We have to continue this test for several more years in order to get a clear view of how students deal with reflection on these important learning skills. A comparative study between the different programmes at our campus will be necessary to search for our students' key features and to analyse the impact of counselling activities on learning skills. Take-home messages: Within the study guidance programme, the LeMo test should be the starting point for profound reflection about learning. We hope that students will become more aware of the importance of certain learning skills.


A comparative study on the factors related to the quality of life between medical and non-medical students in Korea

Kwihwa Park (Gachon University School of Medicine, Medical Education, 38, Dokgeom-ro 3 beon-gil, Namdong-gu, Incheon 405-835, Korea, Republic of (South Korea))

Ie-Byung Park (Gachon University School of Medicine, Internal Medicine, Incheon, Korea, Republic of (South Korea))

Woo-Jin Chung (Gachon University School of Medicine, Internal Medicine, Incheon, Korea, Republic of (South Korea))

Jun Yim (Gachon University School of Medicine, Preventive Medicine, Incheon, Korea, Republic of (South Korea))

Background: Medical students are more exposed to the stresses such as excessive academic load and competition, and lack of sleep than general university students. This study aimed to compare the factors related to the quality of life between medical and non­medical students.

Summary of work: 609 medical students and 396 non­medical students participated in the surveys in 2012. The questionnaire consisted of the items about

socio-demographical characteristics, the quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF-Korea version), stress, stress coping, self-esteem, and social support. The collected data were analyzed with t-test, ANOVA, and multiple-regression analysis.

Summary of results: The medical students recognized their quality of life was lower than the non-medical students, and the recognition difference was found the highest between the first grade students of both groups. No significant gender difference was found in the medical students, but female non-medical students reported higher quality of life than males. No significant difference in stress and self-esteem between medical and non-medical groups was found. Non-medical students had higher scores in stress coping than the medical students and in both groups, females showed higher coping stress than males. In social support, the medical students perceived more faculty support than the non-medical students. Stress (P=-0.320) and stress coping (P=0.144) affected the quality of life of medical students (R2=13.4%), while stress (P=-0.184) and self-esteem (P=0.373) gave an influence on non-medical students (R2=23.8%).

Conclusions: There were differences in the quality of life and its related factors between medical students and non-medical students. Therefore, to improve the quality of life of medical students, programs need to be developed for medical students to manage and cope with their stress.


Are theoretical competences predictive for good clinical skills?

Marie Hilderman (Karolinska Institutet, Institution of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, M 54, Stockholm S-141 86, Sweden) Michael Melin (Karolinska Institutet, Institution of Medicine Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden) Hans Gyllenhammar (Karolinska Institutet, Institution of Medicine Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden)

Background: Theoretical knowledge, practical skills, professional attitude and personal development are the core competences of a physician. Assessing these competences in medical student is an important challenge. A large body of research and experience exist in this field resulting in mostly well-defined methods for examination of theoretical knowledge and practical skills - usually in separate forms. Assessing the combinations of competencies is considerably more challenging. As part of a reform in examinations we asked to what extent different competencies influenced each other. Summary of work: 34 students in the course Clinical Medicine were followed for several weeks of clinical rotations. Experienced clinical teachers assessed the student's skills weekly. Outcome, number of comments "good" or "need of improvement", was compared with results from theoretical examinations. Summary of results: Preliminary results indicate that students performing well in early theoretical exams had superior results in the evaluation of clinical rotations

than students with poor results. During the latter part of the course this difference disappeared. Conclusions: Good theoretical performance may predict a good clinical performance. However, this is not a static phenomenon. Our data indicate that it may be a question of speed of learning and that theoretical underperformers obtain necessary skills and competences in the end of a course. More data and more variables are needed for firm conclusions and also for mechanistic explanations.

Take-home messages: It is never too late. Students that are slow starters will essentially catch up with students that prove high competence early in the course.

3AA Posters: Interprofessional Education 1

Location: Terrace 2, PCC


Implementing a new interprofessional peer-led simulation program for final year medical and nursing students: lessons from a three-part pilot

Zachary Ferguson (Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Medical Education, Connaught Hall, 36-45 Tavistock Square, London WC1H 9EX, United Kingdom)

David McQuade (King's Health Partners London, Simulation and Interactive Learning, London, United Kingdom)

Peter Jaye (King's Health Partners London, Simulation and Interactive Learning, London, United Kingdom) Della Freeth (Queen Mary University London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom)

Background: Simulation-based learning (SBL) for clinical and non-technical skills and peer-led learning are increasingly common in undergraduate medical and nursing education, although peer-led SBL is rare. In 2012, King's College London increased medical students' access to SBL by introducing optional peer-led sessions for final year medical students. The next stage of development involved making these sessions interprofessional in 2013. Summary of work: A pilot program of three interprofessional learner-led SBL sessions for final year medical and nursing students focused on the acutely unwell patient. Three student facilitators (1 medical, 2 nursing) were supported to facilitate SBL scenarios for 11 peers. Evaluation logged the development process and collected data using participant questionnaires, observations and facilitator interviews. Framework analysis guided qualitative data analysis. Summary of results: Inter-school communication and timetable challenges limited recruitment to pilots. Participants evaluated sessions positively and particularly valued interprofessional learning in a safe non-judgemental environment. Peer facilitation was considered effective, but facilitators experienced difficulty in managing interprofessional conflict and encouraging reluctant participants. Conclusions: Interprofessional simulation-based learning (IPSBL) is valued, but medical and nursing curricula have different structures, cultures and timelines, which, along with limited channels of inter-school communication, produce practical and cultural barriers. While the absence of faculty allowed for transformative discussion about interprofessional roles and interactions, peer facilitators need training and support to be effective. Extending SBL to become ISBL is worthwhile: the program is being rolled out in full next academic year.

Take-home messages: Successful ISBL which spans schools needs a champion from each discipline.



A qualitative educational study investigating the symbiotic learning relationship of paramedic mentors and medical students within the Prehospital Care Programme

Christie Brennan (Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Medical Education, 40 Adelina Grove, Whitechapel, London E1 3AD, United Kingdom) Dane Goodsman (Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Medical Education, London, United Kingdom)

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