Автор неизвестен - Mededworld and amee 2013 conference connect - страница 134

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Background: In the National Health Service (NHS) Caldicott Guardian approval is mandatory in research projects where patient sensitive data is being used and ethical approval from a committee is inappropriate. Examples of patient sensitive data include: patient name, date of birth or community health index number etc. These measures are put in place to ensure appropriate and safe handling of data. Summary of work: We present our findings from a survey carried out to identify undergraduate involvement in medical research, knowledge of the Caldicott Guardian and the length of time required for approval if applied.

Summary of results: In total, this pilot study summarises the first 100 responses of medical students from the University of Glasgow. The sample was well representative of all years as, 16 first years, 14 second


years, 21 third years, 21 fourth years and 28 final year students replied. Of these, 48 had participated in medical research, of which 22 collected and analysed patient sensitive data. 19 students acknowledged regulatory approval was required. 47 of the 48 students stated they would participate in medical research again. 75.5% of the survey respondents were unaware of the role of the Caldicott Guardian. Conclusions: Caldicott Guardian involvement is an important component of medical research. However the majority of medical students are unaware of these requirements.

Take-home messages: Undergraduate involvement in medical research is becoming increasingly popular amongst medical students. However undergraduate medical education regarding the Caldicott Guardian requires review, to ensure research being carried out is appropriate and safely handled.


Twenty-two Years of Summer Research Experience for Charles University, Hradec Kralove Medical Students at Mayo Clinic

Zelalem Temesgen (Mayo Clinic, HIV Clinic, 200 First St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, United States) Vladimir Palicka (Charles University, School of Medicine, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic)

Background: The School of Medicine at Charles University in Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic (UK Hradec) recognized a need for a program that allows highly motivated and academically oriented medical students to experience the rewards of scholarly research by providing a structured research experience. Thus, a partnership for this purpose was established with Mayo Clinic in 1991.

Summary of work: Eligible students are medical and dental students as well as postgraduate students attending UK Hradec. Interested students apply internally and provide their resume, area of research interest to the Program Administrator. Those selected by UK Hradec then undergo a second review, including a face-to-face interview, by the Mayo Clinic program administrator.

Summary of results: 63 medical/dental students and 17 post-graduate students participated in this program and visited Mayo Clinic. All of them worked on mentored projects on scientific topics under the supervision of tutors in different fields of medical research. This work resulted in presentations at scientific conferences and in more than twenty publications in high-impact scientific journals. Some students have returned to Mayo Clinic for additional work, some others have pursued residency programs in the United States. Conclusions: This program is deemed an unqualified success by all participants. In addition to teaching students the essentials of effective research and academic research principles, it has been a catalyst for personal and professional growth, as well as for establishing a community of scholars and mentors across the 2 countries and institutions.


Research methodology end-of-course evaluation: students' attitudes and performance, with multiple choice test item analysis

Soha Rashed (Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Community Medicine, Alexandria, Egypt) Sahar Khashab (Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, 245 Horreya Ave., Sporting, Community Medicine Department, Alexandria 21523, Egypt)

Background: Acquisition of research knowledge and skills are essential for medical postgraduates' academic or professional careers. The study aimed to explore the students' attitudes toward the 'Research Methodology' course, assess students' achievement of course learning outcomes, and to evaluate the quality of the final MCQs test items in terms of 'Difficulty Index', 'Discrimination Index' and 'Distractor Efficiency'. Summary of work: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, Egypt on 44 medical postgraduates who completed their Research Methodology course. Students' attitudes were assessed using a 29-item questionnaire. Final MCQs test and course assignments scores were reviewed. The MCQs were analyzed for difficulty and discrimination indices, and distractor efficiency. Summary of results: Most of the participants held positive attitudes toward the Research Methodology course, and valued its importance in their academic or professional careers. A relatively high overall performance of students was achieved. The majority of test items were easy for the students, but maintained their high discriminative value. Items with two nonfunctioning distractors, though easier, were proved to be better discriminators than items with 3 and 4. No significant correlation could be found between difficulty and discrimination indices. However, the mean difficulty index significantly increased with decreasing distractor efficiency.

Conclusions: Relatively positive attitudes of medical postgraduates toward the course contributed to their overall high performance. Further refinement of the course based on students' perspectives is needed. Most of the MCQs used were satisfactory questions as they were able to differentiate good and weak students. Take-home messages: Students' interest and positive attitudes toward research methodology course positively influenced their learning process. Teachers should pay more attention to students' feedback and provide the necessary assistance for students with negative attitudes. Items having average difficulty and high discrimination with functioning distractors should be incorporated into future tests to improve test development and properly discriminate among the students.


Inspiring a new generation of medical researchers

J Bishop (Swansea University, College of Medicine, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom)


T Lloyd (Swansea University, College of Medicine, Swansea, United Kingdom) A John (Swansea University, College of Medicine, Swansea, United Kingdom)

J McKimm (Swansea University, College of Medicine, Swansea, United Kingdom)

G Morgan (Swansea University, College of Medicine, Swansea, United Kingdom)

Background: INSPIRE is coordinated by the Academy of Medical Science and aims to nurture the next generation of medical researchers

Summary of work: We aim to increase medical students' active engagement in research by supporting and motivating them towards considering research careers. We have increased collaboration and networking within the College and the wider University and between healthcare companies and scientists so as to foster a more supportive and collaborative environment for students interested in research. Linked initiatives include: (1) BIOBREAKFASTS - A networking opportunity for students to meet scientists, healthcare company representatives and College researchers. (2) Learning opportunities in research setting - Creating a bank of approx. 200 optional placements where students can gain and expand on their research experience. Examples include journal clubs, research meetings, bench top experiments, seminars and discussions. (3) e-PORTFOLIO and 'MY CV' - Support students in building their online portfolio of research experience helped by near-peer mentors who act as role models and also provide lectures and workshops. (4) Expand existing schemes - Using INSPIRE funding for student research vacationships and to support current funding schemes for student-led projects. Summary of results: Our INSPIRE programme aims to introduce and expand on these four initiatives and closely collaborate with other medical school colleagues and students.

Conclusions: Swansea medical students will also have opportunities for intercalated and parallel studies, including a Masters in Research (MRes), to boost their formal research skills and employability. Take-home messages: Early research exposure will enrich our students and will ensure that our future clinicians are aware of academic pathways as a career choice.


What is the Impact of an Intercalated Degree on Research and Academic Ambitions?

Shobhit Saxena (King's College London, School of

Medicine, London, United Kingdom)

Aranghan Lingham (King's College London, School of

Medicine, London, United Kingdom)

Alexandra Phillips (King's College London, School of

Medicine, London, United Kingdom)

Imen Zoubir (King's College London, School of Medicine,

London, United Kingdom)

Simrit Nijjar (King's College London, School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom)

Helen Graham (King's College London, Division of Medical Education, London, United Kingdom)

Background: Intercalated degrees are integrated within the standard 5-year MBBS programme, therefore extending it by one year. By enabling students to acquire the skills for critical evaluation, these degrees may be useful in highlighting the importance of evidence-based medicine (EBM) during undergraduate training. This study aimed to explore the impact of an intercalated degree on medical students' subsequent involvement in research and audit activities at King's College London School of Medicine (KCLSM). Summary of work: An online questionnaire was administered to 412 final-year medical students in February 2013.

Summary of results: Based on a response rate of 24%, 60.2% of students took an intercalated degree. Students who completed an intercalated degree undertook significantly more research and audit projects (81% vs. 51%, p<0.01) and contributed to more projects per student than those who had not intercalated (mean 2.2 vs. 1.2, p<0.01). Applications to academic postgraduate training were significantly greater in intercalated versus non-intercalated students (42% vs. 18%, p<0.012). Conclusions: Despite intercalation being optional at KCLSM, a large proportion of students undertake these degrees. As the students in our study reported that taking an intercalated degree significantly increased participation in research and audit, it questions whether an intercalated degree should be mandatory. Our findings highlight their potential value in creating a base for future commitment to research during undergraduate training and potentially influencing postgraduate career pathways. Take-home message: Undertaking research and practicing EBM are important skills for future doctors. These can be acquired from an early stage through an intercalated degree, which may also enhance career opportunities.


The Medical Student Research Programme (MSRP) in Norway - How to facilitate active student research

KE Muller (University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Postboks 7804, Bergen 5020, Norway) EA Valestrand (University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Bergen, No

Background: The Medical Student Research Programme (MSRP) was introduced in Norway in 2002 to enhance student research and decrease the average age of PhD candidates in the medical profession. 10% of medical students are given the opportunity to join the programme. These students will during their medical studies complete the necessary requirements for the PhD-programme, as well as initiate their own research. Summary of work: The four medical faculties are given autonomy in how they organize the programme. It is


financed by the Norwegian Research Council. The students usually take one full year leave of absence from their medical studies to perform full-time research. The rest of their study-period they work part-time with their projects.

Summary of results: The aim is that students publish at least one article in a peer-reviewed journal. Most progress to complete a PhD-degree soon after graduating from medical school. Conclusions: Students joining the MSRP will actively engage in research, and enhance their own knowledge and interest in medicine. In addition they get an early start on a potential academic career. Due to the autonomy given by the authorities in the organization of the programme at the faculty level, and the economic security provided, the programme is now well established in Norway.

Take-home messages: Through the MSRP, medical students are given an early opportunity to start an academic career.


Teaching Faculties' perceptions about the research carried out by undergraduate Medical Students - Experience of a mentorship program in an Indian Medical School

Unnikrishnan Bhaskaran (Kasturba Medical College, Community Medicine, Light House Hill Road, Hampankatta, Mangalore 575001, India)

Background: Much research has examined students' experiences of conducting undergraduate research. Faculty members' experiences with and perceptions of undergraduate research have not been examined in as much depth. It is vitally important to examine faculty experiences because they are the individuals who supervise the students. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to examine undergraduate research from the perspective of the faculty mentors. Summary of work: The present cross-sectional study was carried out among 105 teaching faculties in Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India. The data was collected using a pretested semi structured proforma. The scoring was done using a 5 point Likert scale. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. The study was approved by institutional ethics committee.

Summary of results: The majority of the faculties (58.09%) had guided the students for research projects; more than 75% of these projects were funded; more than 70% of these research works was presented by the students in national and international conferences, and 16% of these works has already been published. Faculties perceived that student were generally interested in the research and that student had learnt critical thinking skills and the research work helped the students to be better prepared for work experiences. But there were certain perceived barriers like time consuming and lack of motivation and commitment for research among the students.

Conclusions: Undergraduates who conduct research show improvements in thinking independently, thinking critically, putting ideas together, solving problems, analyzing data, analyzing literature, interpreting research findings, conducting ethical research, and giving presentations and publishing their work. Take-home messages: Research should be incorporated into undergraduate medical education curriculum and the students should be trained in conducting ethical research.


Association between self-learning, socio-demographic and academic factors with the ability to write scientific articles in under­graduate dental students

Emilia Carrasco (Universidad San Sebastian, Facultad de Odontologia, Lientur 1457, Maipu 1980 casa F, Concepcion 56-41-2400030, Chile)

Background: The ability to write a scientific article is an important competence that dental students should manage. There is scarce evidence of assessing this competence in under-graduate students. Summary of work: 71 students of the second year of the Dental School were selected. They were requested to write a laboratory report following a scientific publication format. The instruments used to evaluate the ability of students to write a scientific article were: a scale designed by the authors to evaluate the quality of reporting, and the Fischer et al. Predisposition Self-Directed Scale.

Summary of results: 15.5% of students wrote a scientific article which fulfilled all the evaluation criteria. 66.2% of students fulfilled the criteria for writing the introduction section, and 91.5% of students fulfilled the criteria for writing the material and method section. 9.8% of students described the results section in accordance with the objectives of the study, and only 7% of the students described correctly the conclusion section. Men (Score = 5.23) showed better ability to write a scientific article than women (Score = 4.93), p <0.03. The ability to write a scientific article was not associated with the type of high school the students came from, the high school scores obtained, the result of the test for selecting students to enter the university, and ability for students' independent learning. Conclusions: Undergraduate dental students of the Universidad San Sebastian showed a deficient ability to write a scientific article. The results show the necessity to provide experiences aimed to prepare students to write scientific articles.

Take-home messages: Provide remedial actions. 10AA/12

How I stopped worrying - and other unspoken outcomes of medical students' research projects

Riitta Moller (Karolinska Institutet, Medical epidemiology and biostatistics, Nobelsvag 12 A, Solna 17177, Sweden)


Klara Bolander-Laksov (Karolinska Institutet, Learning, Informatics, Managements and Ethics, Stockholm, Sweden)

Background: The overarching aims of science education including students' individual research projects are to provide students with understanding of research process, scientific methods, in depth knowledge of research topic, and ability to find and implement new knowledge in all kinds of future practice. To deepen the understanding of benefits and learning during the degree project course, seen from the students' perspective, it is important to capture and analyze students' own experiences.

Summary of work: The Degree project in medicine at Karolinska Institutet is a one term (20 weeks; 30 ECTS credits) long course at advanced level (term 7) during which the medical students carry out an individual research project under supervision. Students' written reflections of benefits and learning during the course on fall term 2012 were analyzed by inductive qualitative content analysis. A purposeful and maximum variation sampling strategy was used to obtain breadth in data. Summary of results: Except research specific skills, like scientific writing and statistics, the results showed enhanced self-efficacy and self-regulation, enhanced communications skills, time management and team work skills.

Conclusions: Not only research specific skills but also several other essential skills for medical practice were improved during the degree project course. Take-home messages: Individual research projects are valuable in enhancing students' personal development.


Tell them why before teaching them how: Medical students' attitudes toward research knowledge and academic performance in Thailand

Win Techakehakij (Suratthani Hospital, Social Medicine, Amphur Muang, Suratthani 84000, Thailand)

Background: This study aims to explore the extent to which students' attitudes toward the content of research knowledge (RK) affect their academic performance.

Summary of work: A cross-sectional survey was distributed to 41 fourth-year medical students who completed a four-week holistic medicine module at Suratthani Hospital, Thailand. Students were asked to complete the questionnaire, which asked students about their attitudes toward the RK content that comprised the first week of the module. Students were asked to agree or disagree with the following statements: 1) content is difficult; 2) content is not interesting; 3) content is irrelevant to medical education; 4) content is irrelevant to medical practice (MP); and 5) content is unlikely to be applicable in the future. Information on sex and grade point average (GPA) was also collected. Students' academic performance in the RK section of the module was

subsequently evaluated using a knowledge test created for this study, which was comprised of seven multiple-choice questions. Bivariate correlations were run between attitudes, sex, GPA, and the test score, with a significance level of 0.1.

Summary of results: Results indicate an inverse correlation between agreement on the irrelevance of RK and MP and their academic performance (correlation=-0.284, p-value=0.072). Students' performance was also positively correlated with GPA (correlation=0.279, p-value=0.078).

Conclusions: Attitudes toward the relevance of RK and MP may be a significant predictor of students' performance in the research subject. Take-home messages: To improve students' performance in research learning, it may be useful to focus on its use in MP, alongside other efforts to enhance teaching quality.


Improving Swedish medical students' abilities to find, understand, and apply evidence based research in clinical practice

Daniel Novak (Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Univ of Gothenburg, Smorslottsvagen 1, Gothenburg 41345, Sweden)

Mar Tulinius (Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Univ of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden)

Background: This study explores the possibility of actively improving students' ability to apply an evidence based medicine (EBM) approach during a nine week pediatric course.

Summary of work: At the start of the course they answered an anonymous self evaluation of EBM approach (10-point-scale). During the course one lecture in searching for EBM literature was given. Each student met one referral patient and one inpatient during the course and applied current EBM literature to the cases. The literature choice was discussed with the teacher. At the end of the course the same questionnaire was re-answered.

Summary of results: 91% (40/44) paired questionnaires were received. Baseline median self evaluated score for their ability to independently search for EBM literature was 5.9 (range 1-10), critically appraise EBM literature was 5.0 (range 2-9), and apply EBM literature to clinical practice 4.4 (range 2-8). At the end of the course their respective values improved by an average of 1.5 (95%CI

0.8-2.1), 1.5 (95%CI 0.9-2.2), and 2.1 (95%CI 1.5-2.7).

Conclusions: Last year Swedish medical students believe they have a fairly good ability to use an EBM approach. However, by actively requesting students to use EBM literature in their clinical practice and giving them feedback improves their EBM approach. Take-home messages: Last year medical students can improve their abilities to independently find, critically appraise, and apply EBM in clinical practice in nine weeks by a minimal teacher effort.


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